Analysis of Hebrews 6

4 04 2011

Introduction

             Hebrews chapter 6 has historically caused a great deal of confusion throughout Church history. The difficulty in coming to a proper understanding of this text cannot be underestimated. J. Vernon McGee states, “This chapter, by all odds, contains the most difficult passage in the Bible for an interpreter to handle, regardless of his theological position.”[1] Particularly verses 4-6 have been exposed to many different interpretations from Bible scholars. To a great extent the difficulty in interpreting the passage has much to do with identifying who the author is writing to, what the overall purpose of the epistle entails, and the meaning of the words “falling away” in verse six. There have been at least five main views concerning the interpretation of this passage of Scripture. Wiersbe states four of the most popular views:

(1) it describes the sin of apostasy, which means Christians can lose their salvation; (2) it deals with people who were “almost saved” but then backed away from trusting Christ; (3) it describes a sin possible only to Jews living while the Jewish temple was still standing; (4) it presents a “hypothetical case” or illustration that could not really happen.[2]

 Wiersbe rejects each of these four views in favor of yet a fifth different interpretation of the passage. The writer’s of The Bible Knowledge Commentary present what amounts to the fifth view: “that a warning is given of the danger of a Christian moving from a position of true faith and life to the extent of becoming disqualified for further service (1 Cor. 9:27) and for inheriting millennial glory.”[3]

            Obviously each of these views must be weighed against not only the immediate context and overall theme of the book of Hebrews, but also must be measured against the clear interpretations of other related passages of Scripture. It is within the scope of this paper to examine Hebrews 6:1-9 in light of its historical background and context, to further exegete the passage verse by verse, and then to state the theological implications of each interpretation while presenting what we believe to be the only true and theologically consistent interpretation of the passage, followed by the relevant application for the Church today.

The Historical and Contextual Background of Hebrews 6:1-9

            Before considering the meat of the text itself we must examine the overall theme and context of the book of Hebrews. If we correctly identify these issues and keep them in the forefront of our minds as we examine the text it will greatly aid in arriving at the correct interpretation of the text.

Intended Audience

First, we must ask the question, who is the author of Hebrews writing to? Due to the name of the epistle and the heavy emphasis on the Old Testament practices it has been widely agreed upon that the main people group in focus are the Jewish people. M.R. Dehaan states two major views concerning the intended audience of the epistle:

First, there are those who teach that Hebrews was written to born-again believers, saved people, warning them of the danger of again falling from grace and finally losing their salvation, which they now possessed. This is the view held by the Arminian school of theologians. It is mainly based on chapters six and ten, the two chapters on which most of the difference of opinion and interpretation exists. A second school of interpretation teaches that the people addressed in the letter were not truly born-again believers, but merely professing Christians, who had come only part way to Christ and were in danger of drawing back before they were finally and actually saved. This is the generally accepted view of the Calvinistic school of interpretation.[4]

Aside from presenting popular views on the subject, John MacArthur believes that the author is writing to three different classifications of Jews at various times throughout the epistle. He writes,

A proper interpretation of this epistle requires the recognition that it addresses 3 distinct groups of Jews: 1) believers; 2) unbelievers who were intellectually convinced of the gospel; and 3) unbelievers who were attracted by the gospel and the person of Christ but who had reached no final conviction about Him. Failure to acknowledge these groups leads to interpretations inconsistent with the rest of Scripture.[5]

It would seem that MacArthur’s view is farfetched in that he divides certain Scripture passages to fit his own theological interpretations of the text. For instance he applies chapter 2:1-3; 6:4-6; and 12:15-17 to unbelievers who were intellectually convinced of the gospel. He also pulls individual verses apart in chapter 9 and applies them to the third group, the unbelievers who were attracted by the gospel and the person of Christ but who had reached no final conviction about Him (vv. 11, 14, 15, 27, & 28).[6] This type of interpretation of the text leaves room for too much subjectivity by the interpreter. Indeed it would seem that MacArthur readily applies verses 4-6 of our passage to unbelievers while applying the verses around this section to believers. It is admitted that had the author of the epistle given any indication that his audience was changing between verses 3 and 4 such an interpretation would be correct, however there is no indication of such a change given in the text. Because of this MacArthur’s view of 3 different audiences must be rejected.

            The two major schools of thought concerning the Arminian and Calvinistic claims must also be rejected in light of Scripture. The Arminian view is clearly based on their teaching that a believer is not secure in Christ and can therefore lose their salvation. As we will see later, this clearly contradicts many other Scripture passages. The Calvinistic view that the author is addressing unbelievers who were merely professing to be Christians is in contradiction to many of the passages in Hebrews. It seems that throughout the epistle the author is consistently addressing Jewish believers, plain and simple. Consider the following Scriptures:

Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;[7] (emphasis mine)

Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession.[8]

Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh; And having an high priest over the house of God; Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering; (for he is faithful that promised;) And let us consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works: Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.[9]

These and other passages in the epistle give clear indication that the author has in view born-again Jews, whose object of faith is Jesus Christ.

Theme of Hebrews

            Secondly, we must ask the question, what is the overall theme of the book of Hebrews? Identifying the theme will help the interpreter zero in on the main issues at hand throughout the epistle. There is consistent emphasis throughout this epistle in three key areas. First of all, from the following verses it can be clearly seen that the author is presenting Jesus Christ as better than all that the Old Testament had to offer them.

Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.[10]

For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did; by the which we draw nigh unto God.[11]

By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament. [12]

But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.[13]

It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.[14]

For ye had compassion of me in my bonds, and took joyfully the spoiling of your goods, knowing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better and an enduring substance.[15]

But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.[16]

Women received their dead raised to life again: and others were tortured, not accepting deliverance; that they might obtain a better resurrection:[17]

And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.[18]

This is significant to these readers in light of their Jewish background. Christ is presented as better than the angels, better than Moses, a better rest, a better covenant based on better promises, a better sacrifice, providing better treasures, in a better country, through a better resurrection. These Jewish believers needed to know that Jesus Christ was better than anything that the old covenant offered them and because of that they needed to condition their faith to endure to the end.

            Another key emphasis in this epistle is the many warnings that the author gives to his audience.

Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip.[19]

Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.[20]

For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.[21]

For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins,[22]

Looking diligently lest any man fail of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled; Lest there be any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright. For ye know how that afterward, when he would have inherited the blessing, he was rejected: for he found no place of repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears. [23]

These warnings coincide nicely with the author’s repeated emphasis on Christ as being better than the old covenant. These believers were obviously in some danger of turning back from the principles of Christianity and returning to the foundational elements of Judaism. This leads us to the author’s third emphasis as far as theme.

            Quite possibly we have the theme verses of this epistle found in Hebrews 5:12-14, which directly precedes our passage under consideration in chapter 6.

For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. For every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe. But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil.[24]

The writer’s admonition is for these Jewish believers to press forward in their faith in Jesus Christ and to move beyond the simple basics of the milk of the Word of God.

            When all three of these major themes are seen in light of one another the epistle of Hebrews begins to make clear sense. These were Jewish believers who were in danger of turning back to the principles of Judaism, and thus forsaking Christ, and as a result the writer is seeking to spur them on to spiritual maturity by warning them of the dangers of turning back and by presenting Jesus Christ as better than every aspect of the old covenant. The danger they faced was not a danger of losing their salvation, but rather they were faced with the danger of suffering the discipline of the Lord (Heb. 12). The Judgment seat of Christ will indeed be a time of serious judgment upon believers. If these believing Jews failed to condition their faith for endurance to the end and grow in the grace and knowledge of the Lord then they too would face a loss of rewards on the Day of Judgment for believers. Knowing these foundational themes behind the book of Hebrews we now press on to tackling the difficulties of the passage we find in Hebrews 6:1-9.

Exegetical Study of Hebrews 6:1-6

            As we approach this passage of Scripture we must first state again the main theme. Many err in their interpretation of this text because they assume the author is writing about salvation. Again the salvation of these Jews was not in question by the author. He has just emphasized their need to move beyond foundational principles and to begin to digest the meat of the Word of God as it pertains to Christ (Heb. 5:12-14). On the heals of this exhortation to spiritual maturity we see the word ‘therefore’ at the beginning of verse one. This clearly points us back to what the author was saying and he was saying it to believers. Furthermore, verse 9 states, “But, beloved, we are persuaded better things of you, and things that accompany salvation, though we thus speak.”[25](emphases mine) The writer of Hebrews is not speaking of things concerning salvation, but rather things that accompany salvation. Because of this we know that salvation is not in view. What is in view is repentance. We will see this more and more as we proceed with our interpretation.

Hebrews 6:1-3

Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. And this will we do, if God permit.[26]

            One of the keys to a proper interpretation of this passage is to understand the meanings of the words translated “leaving” and “let us go on”. Wuest defines ‘leaving’ in the following way:

The word translated “leaving” is a verb meaning “to put or place,” with a preposition prefixed which means “off” or “away” (aphiemi (ἀφιεμι)). The preposition implies separation and is used with a case in Greek which implies separation.[27]

The implication is that these believers were exhorted “to put away the principles of the doctrine of Christ.” The most logical question that follows is, what are “the principles of the doctrine of Christ”? Wuest again makes an important observation about the difference between the word ‘principle’ as it’s translated in Hebrews 5:12 verses Hebrews 6:1. He states,

…the English reader should know that the expressions, “the first principles of the oracles of God” (5:12), and “the principles of the doctrine of Christ” (6:1), are quite different in the Greek. The word “principles” in these verses comes from two different Greek words. The expression in 5:12 refers to the elementary teachings in New Testament truth, and the one in 6:1, to the teaching of the First Testament where Messiah was first spoken of.[28]

As a result, the exhortation “to put away the principles of the doctrine of Christ” is in reality an exhortation for these Jewish believers to discontinue their reliance upon the doctrines of the old covenant. It seems they were taking their faith in Jesus Christ and attempting to mix it with the rituals from the old covenant and as a result were attempting to lay a new foundation. Jesus Christ was the foundation of their faith and yet they were in danger of returning to the Old Testament oracles and therefore in need of someone to teach them again the first principles of New Testament truth. The foundational truths of the Old Testament are laid out by the author and stated as being “repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.” These are all Old Testament doctrinal truths that are made complete in the New Testament. If these believing Jews went back to the ritualistic ways (i.e. dead works) of the old covenant they would be returning to the most foundational teachings that paved the way for faith in Christ. After all Galatians tells us, “Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.” [29] Jesus tells us further, “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.”[30] The teachings of the Old Testament were merely shadows of that which was to come. When Christ came He came to fulfill those teachings and to give a clearer understanding of God’s revelation to mankind. Wuest further states,  

The word is an aorist participle…The aorist tense speaks of a once for all action. We could translate, “Therefore, having abandoned once for all the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on to perfection.” The act of abandoning is the pre-requisite to that of going on. One cannot go on without first separating one’s self from that to which one is attached.[31]

Not only does the writer of Hebrews exhort these believers to put away these elementary doctrines and to rely upon their foundational faith in Christ, but he exhorts them to go on to perfection. The reading literally means, “let us be borne on to completeness.” Wuest states,

The word is in the passive voice, which means that the subject is passive or inactive itself and is being acted upon by some outside agent. Thus we could translate, “abandoning once for all … let us be carried along.”[32]

This explains verse three, which states, “And this will we do, if God permit.” What the writer was exhorting his readers to do was not possible in and of themselves, but was a work that God had to do through them as they exercised faithful dependence upon Him to carry out the work. Wiersbe confirms this interpretation when he writes,

…the writer is not talking about self-effort; he is appealing to the readers to yield themselves to the power of God, the same power that upholds the whole universe. How can we fall when God is holding us?[33]

The dependence of these believers needed to be reestablished in the finished work of Christ and borne along to maturity by faith through the power of the Holy Spirit working in them.

Hebrews 6:4-6

For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame. [34]

            Herein lies the center of controversy and the source of the many interpretations of this portion of Scripture. It has already been stated that there are at least five main interpretations of this text. One of the interpretations is that this portion describes the sin of apostasy in which a true believer comes to deny his faith in Christ. If this is the proper interpretation then the end result would be that such a person could never be saved again. There are indeed many denominations that teach that a believer is not secure in Christ and can lose their salvation. Many, if not all, of them would use this portion of Scripture to defend their erroneous doctrine. However, if they are correct, then based on the teaching of this passage such a person could never be saved again or renewed unto repentance. For the sake of time, we will appeal to only one passage in defending the believer’s security in Christ:

My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father’s hand. I and my Father are one. [35]

Thus, this interpretation does not agree with the whole of Scripture and must be rejected.

            A second interpretation is that these were unbelievers who were merely professing to know Christ and had not exercised genuine faith in Him. Some have attempted to make the description of these people found in verses 4 and 5 to be something just short of salvation. Even if this were the case, the question must then be asked, why would such a person who had never truly trusted Christ be eliminated from the possibility of being brought to genuine repentance? Surely there are many documented cases of people who once professed Christ and then later realized they had never genuinely been saved and then proceeded to exercise genuine repentance and faith in Christ. These questions are not easily solved by its proponents.

The description of these people in verses 4 and 5 seems quite clearly to be referring to believers. If unbelievers are in view, in what terms would one go about describing a true believer? These persons are described as having been “enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come…” Upon examining these words, “enlightened”, “tasted”, and “partakers” throughout the New Testament we believe there is no other possible interpretation but to conclude that the writer is describing people who have truly been born-again. Just a couple of comparisons will suffice. The same Greek word for enlightened is used in Hebrews 10:32 where it is written, “But call to remembrance the former days, in which, after ye were illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions;” [36] The very same people being addressed in Hebrews six as being once enlightened are referred to again in 10:32 and clearly their genuine faith is not in question. They had been saved and then endured persecutions because of their faith.

Dehaan sheds further light on the usage of the word ‘tasted’ when he writes,

The word, ‘taste,’ in our Scripture is genomai in the Greek and means to experience and to eat. This is its meaning wherever else it is used. It occurs once earlier in Hebrews 2:9 and says that Jesus, ‘…by the grace of God should taste death for every man.’[37]

Surely Hebrews 2:9 would never be interpreted that Jesus some how did not experience the full force of death. Yet, how can one apply a different meaning to the same exact word in Hebrews 6?

            Quite possibly the most difficult word to reconcile for those who hold that this is not a description of a saved person is ‘partaker.’ Again, Dehaan delivers a crushing blow to this interpretation of the word when he writes,

The word “partakers” is metochos in the original. It is translated “partakers” in five passages (Heb. 3:1; 3:14; 6:4; 12:8; and 12:10). It is translated “fellows” once (Heb. 1:9). We need do little more than quote the passages where it occurs to see the real meaning of the word.[38]

Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;[39]

For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end; [40]

But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons. [41]

For they verily for a few days chastened us after their own pleasure; but he for our profit, that we might be partakers of his holiness. [42]

 

Are those who come close to salvation partakers of the heavenly calling? Can it be said of an unbeliever that they have partaken of God’s holiness? Clearly this description, when taken in its literal context with the literal meanings of the words used, cannot refer to anyone but a genuine believer in Christ.

            Another key to properly unlocking this text is to understand what the author means by “falling away” in verse six. The word in the Greek is parapipto and is used only here in the New Testament. The word pipto means “to descend from a higher place to a lower” or “to fall down beside”. It is used in Matthew 26:39 when Jesus fell on his face and prayed in the garden of Gethsemane. The root word para is translated ‘away’ in our verse and is variously translated throughout the New Testament. Together the word parapipto means “to fall away” or “to fall beside”. It is interesting and significant that it is not the normal Greek word used when describing apostasy. Many have translated parapipto to mean apostasy or denying ones faith. J. Vernon McGee disagrees when he writes,

“It would be impossible to give it the meaning of ‘apostatize’…There are many examples in Scripture of men who ‘fell away.’ The apostle Peter fell, but he was not lost. The Lord Jesus said to him, ‘I have prayed that your faith might not fail’ (see Luke 22:32). Peter suffered loss, but he was not lost.”[44]

It is true that historically most scholars have interpreted the word to mean a complete apostasy from the faith thus leading to the interpretation that the writer is presenting a hypothetical situation that could not happen to a true believer. However, we have shown that the word does not have to mean apostasy, only a falling away from the faith.

            It is also interesting that Wiersbe interprets the phrase “seeing they crucify” as better translated “while they are crucifying.” There is merit to this interpretation in light of Hebrews 10:29 which states,

Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace? [45]

This is a clear reference to the same type of situation that is being described in Hebrews 6:4-6. Genuine believers who would turn back to the Old Testament sacrificial system would be making a public statement that the sacrifice of Jesus Christ was not sufficient and therefore, would trample upon the blood of Christ (Heb. 10:29), and put Him to an open shame (Heb. 6:6). Such a believer will face the judgment of God at the Judgment Seat of Christ and will suffer the loss of eternal rewards. The question then is, why would a person who goes back to the Old Testament sacrificial system be unable to be brought back to repentance? We believe that if the phrase “seeing they crucify” is best translated “while they are crucifying” then the interpretation of the text is clear. Such a person cannot be brought back to repentance “while they are crucifying” Christ over and over again through Old Testament sacrifices. So long as they are trampling upon the blood of Christ such a one is unable to be brought to repentance. They must first change their mind about the sufficiency of Christ’s atonement and then a change in action will follow.

Theological Analysis and Practical Application

            It has been proven that there is but one interpretation of the text that will stand up against the scrutiny of other Scripture. The fact that the writer of Hebrews is writing to saved Jews who had experienced persecution for their faith and were in danger of going back to the Old Testament system of worship seems clear based on the overall theme and the immediate context of our passage. These were not believers in danger of losing their salvation, but rather were stagnant, and even moving backwards in their faith and were as a result in danger of losing their rewards in eternity. Hebrews 6:7-8 bear this fact out further as we read,

For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God: But that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned. [46]

 

Our writer here gives further evidence through this illustration that salvation is not in view. When the earth receives the rain that comes down from heavens and as a result brings forth fruit, it receives the blessings of God. But that ground which brings forth the thorns and briers is near cursing and the fruit of its soil will be burned. The writers of The Bible Knowledge Commentary conclude,

The point is that when a plot of ground that has been rained on is productive, God blesses it. But if it only produces thorns and thistles, it is worthless (adokimos, “disapproved”; cf. 1 Cor. 9:27) and is in danger of being cursed. In the end it will be burned. The metaphor recalls God’s original curse on the ground (Gen. 3:17-19) and suggests that an unproductive Christian life ultimately (“in the end”) falls under the severe condemnation of God and is subject to His blazing wrath and judgment (cf. Heb. 10:27).[48]

The apostle Paul sets forth the same principle in 1 Corinthians 3 where he writes,

Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble; Every man’s work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is. If any man’s work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire. [49]

The application of Hebrews 6:1-9 must be seen in light of the Judgment Seat of Christ and the believers loss or gain of eternal rewards. When taken in this light this text serves as an undeniable and serious exhortation for believers to walk in the Holy Spirit and to hold fast their profession of faith in Jesus Christ. Taking the grace of God for granted and trampling upon the blood of Christ through a lifestyle of sinful living will bring shame to the name of Christ in this life and will result in the Divine chastening of the Lord and ultimately the loss of eternal rewards. This is a serious charge for believers to “work out your own salvation with fear and trembling.”[50]

 

 

Conclusion

            At the outset of this paper we promised to examine Hebrews 6:1-9 in light of its historical background and context, to further exegete the passage verse by verse, and then to state the theological implications of each interpretation while presenting what we believe to be the only true and theologically consistent interpretation of the passage, followed by the relevant application for the Church today. Upon our examination of the text we have found that indeed there is only one interpretation of the text that stands in the light of the clear teachings of the Bible. This text was written to Jewish believers who were in danger of returning to the ritualistic worship of the old covenant. As a result, they were presented with a convincing case that Christ is better than the old covenant in every way, and that to turn back would bring reproach to the name of Christ and cause them to suffer eternal loss at the Judgment Seat of Christ. Therefore, this is a solemn warning to all believers to hold fast to their profession of faith in Jesus Christ.

Works Cited

McGee, J. Vernon: The Epistles: Hebrews Chapters 1-7. Nashville, TN.: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1991.

Wiersbe, Warren W.: Wiersbe’s Expository Outlines on the New Testament. Wheaton, Ill. : Victor Books, 1997, c1992.

Walvoord, John F. ; Zuck, Roy B. ; Dallas Theological Seminary: The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures. Wheaton, IL : Victor Books, 1983-c1985.

Dehaan, M.R., Studies in Hebrews. Grand Rapids, MI.: Kregel Publications, 1996.

MacArthur, John, MacArthur Study Bible. Nashville, TN.: Word Publishing, 1997.

The Holy Bible : King James Version. electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version. Bellingham WA : Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1995.

Wuest, Kenneth S.: Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament : For the English Reader. Grand Rapids : Eerdmans, 1997, c1984.


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